Know Everything About Contraception – Blogs By Experts

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

Contraception is the term used for any method or device used to prevent unwanted and untimely pregnancy. There are various ways to prevent pregnancy, like male sterility, where the semen or the ejaculation does not contain any sperm, thus preventing the sperm from reaching the egg; using a spermicidal that kills the sperm inside the female reproductive organs; or a method that prevents a fertilized egg from being implanted in the uterus.

There are various reasons for using contraception. People have specific reasons for using birth control, which could be health-related, sexual, religious, financial, or a personal choice.

The importance of contraception or birth control lies in giving women or couples the independence to choose when they want to get pregnant while enjoying their sexual lives. If one thinks that they are not ready to have a baby now or that having a baby might get in the way of their goals, then contraception is the best solution.

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PCOS – Diagnosis and Treatment

Unintended pregnancy is defined as a pregnancy that is unwanted. In simpler words, a pregnancy occurs when the couple does not want to have a child or if the pregnancy is mistimed (the pregnancy occurred earlier than desired).

The prevalence of unintended pregnancy helps in understanding the unmet need for contraception. Most unintended pregnancies result from not using any method of contraception or from not using it consistently or correctly. Contraception is also referred to as birth control or family planning.

Typically, women start their reproductive age at 15-16 years and reach menopause around 50 years of age. So, most women have around three decades of being sexually active while trying to avoid getting pregnant. This can be challenging, especially if they are not educated or financially independent.

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Management of PCOS

There are various things to be considered when women, men, or couples decide their preferred choice of contraception. These include effectiveness, affordability, accessibility, and safety. It is advised that when choosing an effective method of contraception, dual protection from HIV and other transmitted diseases along with unintended pregnancy should be considered.

Various contraceptive methods have been described below:

  1. Intrauterine device (IUD)
  2. Hormone delivery methods
  3. Barrier methods
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PCOS – Causes and Possible Complications

Sterilization is the only permanent method of contraception for men and women. Male sterilization is done by performing a vasectomy, and female sterilization involves undergoing a tubectomy.

In vasectomy, the tubes called vas deferens of the male reproductive system are cut or blocked to prevent the sperm from being carried from the testicles to the urethra. It is one of the most effective methods of birth control but pregnancy can occur in 1 out of every 2000 vasectomies performed.

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Watch the videos to know about various aspects of Contraception

Videos from Divakars Hospital Youtube Channel

Q&As on Contraception

Can impotence occur after a vasectomy?

A vasectomy is a surgical procedure that blocks the sperm from interacting with the semen. Without sperm, a woman cannot get pregnant. One of the common concerns for individuals considering a vasectomy is impotence, or erectile dysfunction (ED), which is the inability to sustain an erection or ejaculate. However, the risk for impotence from a vasectomy is extremely rare. In fact, some men even report better sex lives after vasectomy.

What is the best contraception?

The best kind of birth control to prevent unintended pregnancy is the contraceptive implant and IUDs — they are also the most convenient to use, and the most foolproof.

Other birth control methods, like the pill, ring, patch, and shot, are also really good at preventing pregnancy, but only if used perfectly.

Different types of contraceptive methods have different failure rates. Contraceptive implants and IUDs have the lowest failure rate ranging between 0.05-3%. The highest rate of failure is seen with contraceptive methods like fertility awareness and lactational amenorrhea methods.

What are the various types of contraception?

There are different contraceptive methods available depending on what is comfortable and suitable, as well as, easily available. The various types of contraceptives are:

  • Male and female sterilization methods – also called vasectomy and tubectomy respectively, are the permanent contraceptive methods.
  • Intrauterine contraception – These consist of IUDs like Copper T which do not release any hormones. The other type of IUDs release progestin hormone to prevent pregnancy.
  • Other hormonal methods – These consist of combined oral contraceptive pills which contain oestrogen and progestin, or progestin-only pills. There are other ways to deliver hormones like the implant, patch, injection, hormonal vaginal ring, etc.
  • Barrier methods – This consists of male and female condoms. Diaphragm or cervical cap, sponge, and other spermicidal.
  • Fertility awareness and lactational amenorrhea methods.
What is the right age for sterilization?

An individual can undergo sterilization at any age. However, individuals under 30, particularly if they have not had any children, are offered the opportunity to discuss their choices before committing to the procedure. One should only consider sterilization if they are certain that they do not want children. It should be an informed choice and should be considered with their partner as it affects their lives as well.

Is sterilization painful for men?

A vasectomy (male sterilisation) is a surgical procedure to cut or seal the tubes that carry a man’s sperm to permanently prevent pregnancy. Even though it is a surgical procedure, it is not painful as it is usually carried out under local anaesthetic, where the individual is awake but does not feel any pain. In rare cases, the procedure may be carried out under general anaesthesia. The surgery takes about 15 minutes, and the individual can go home the same day.

Can a woman get pregnant after being sterilized?

Female sterilisation, also called tubectomy or tubal ligation, works by preventing eggs from travelling down the fallopian tubes, which link the ovaries to the uterus. Because of this, a woman’s eggs cannot meet the sperm, so fertilisation cannot happen.

Even though extremely rare, pregnancy can occur despite tubectomy. It can happen in 1 in 2000 cases of tubectomy.

Tubectomy is the permanent method of birth control and is generally opted out for by couples or individuals who do not want to have any or more kids. One should consult with their doctor before deciding on this.

How to prevent unintended pregnancy?

Contraception or birth control is the safest way to prevent unintended pregnancy. There are several birth control options available depending on the need and the health of the individual seeking it.

There are reversible and irreversible methods for both men and women like sterilization, IUDs, implants, patches, sponges, condoms, oral contraceptive pills, etc.

Does IUD hurt?

Intrauterine Devices (IUDs) are one of the most common and successful methods of birth control. Individuals usually feel cramping or pain when they are getting their IUD placed. This pain can last for a minute or two. Some doctors advise pain medication to prevent cramps.

There are 2 types of intrauterine devices. Copper ‘T’ IUDs do not release any hormone and stay in place for 12 years. Progestin releasing IUDs release a small amount of progestin to help prevent pregnancy and stay in place for up to 6 years. Both these methods are extremely safe.

Is there any form of natural contraception?

The fertility awareness method, also called the rhythm method, is a natural birth control method. It is based on the ovulation cycle. It involves abstaining from sex on the days when the female is most fertile and most likely to become pregnant.

The lactational amenorrhea method (LAM) is for women who have recently had a baby and are breastfeeding. It can be used as birth control when three conditions are met: amenorrhea (no menstrual periods after delivering a baby), fully or nearly fully breastfeeding, and less than 6 months after delivering a baby. LAM is a temporary method of birth control, and it must be used with other contraceptive methods.

Withdrawal is another natural birth control method where the penis is removed from the vagina before ejaculation. If the withdrawal method is the only method of birth control used, the risk of pregnancy is 22 out of 100.

Is it okay to be on birth control for years?

Birth control methods like male and female sterilization, Copper ‘T’ IUDs are safe to use long term. For other methods like oral contraceptive pills, if there are no side effects after taking it for some time, it can be used for as long as needed and as long as the doctor deems it to be a safe choice. For most healthy people, birth control pills are safe for long-term use.

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